The Smart Export Guarantee in 2022

export guarantee

Since 1st January 2020, large energy suppliers with at least 150,000 customers in the UK have been required to pay households for the renewable energy they export to the National Grid. The scheme called the Smart Export Guarantee (SEG) was set up by the UK government to replace the Feed-in tariff which closed to new customers on 31st March 2019. To this day the Feed-in tariff pays many solar panel owners for the electricity they generate at home. Though not as generous a scheme, the Smart Export Guarantee pays households for the excess renewable electricity they generate but don’t use themselves.

The Smart Export Guarantee doesn’t only apply to electricity exported to the National Grid from solar panels (PV), other forms of small scale, low carbon energy renewable technologies also qualify including wind, hydro, micro combined heat and power and anaerobic digestion. The government said that any homes putting excess renewable energy into the grid were guaranteed payment under this scheme. You need to sign up to a SEG tariff with an energy supplier first in order to receive payments for your excess electricity.

The scheme was good news for the solar industry as it meant that households could still benefit from their solar generated energy in two ways, by saving money on their utility bills and by making money on the electricity they didn’t use. The introduction of the SEG meant that homeowners with solar panels no longer felt that their unused electricity was being wasted. It was also hoped that SEG rates would gradually increase as energy companies competed with another.

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However, in recent months the energy sector has been going through a very turbulent phase. Spiralling gas costs are causing considerable financial difficulties for thousands of households. The rising costs have also led to 30 of the mostly smaller energy companies going bust. The recent spate of closures is evidence of the depth of the current crisis in the energy market. The energy regulator, Ofgem has provided a safety net for millions of customers, maintaining energy supplies to domestic customers, and protecting their credit balances while moving their accounts to a new supplier.

At the same time electricity supplies are threatened due to most of the UK’s ageing nuclear reactors, which provide 20% of the UK’s electricity, being closed in the next few years. On top of this the UK is facing a dilemma if it is to succeed in reaching net zero carbon emissions by 2050. We need to reduce our reliance on the use of fossil fuels radically in order to keep to this target while growing our renewable energy industry to be able to meet our power demands in the future.

Currently, approximately half our electricity is generated by burning natural gas in power plants. About half of that comes to our shores from North Sea rigs whose overall output is dwindling as gas fields reach the end of their lives. The rest of our gas is imported from other nations; most of it is shipped from Qatar or the US or piped from Norway.

Without doubt, energy security and fighting climate change are inextricably linked.

Despite all this many of the energy suppliers that have survived are still providing the Smart Export Guarantee. The pandemic, Covid-19 does not appear to have had an adverse effect on the SEG. If anything, the demand for the SEG has risen during the crisis.

There are a few things to consider before you can benefit from the SEG.

In order to be eligible for the SEG there are 3 key requirements for all households:

  • You must be located in the UK
  • You need to be generating renewable energy at home via solar PV, wind, hydro, micro combined heat, and power (CHP), or anaerobic digestion (AD), with a maximum capacity of 5 megawatts.
  • Your installation must be MCS certified. The Microgeneration Certification Scheme (MCS) certifies, quality assures and provides consumer protection for microgeneration installations and installers. 

The next step is to sign up to a SEG tariff with an energy supplier so that you can receive payments for your excess electricity.

You will also usually need to get a smart meter installed which will allow for more accurate readings of the electricity you are exporting to the grid. The smart meter can make a recording of your electricity exports on a half-hourly basis and communicate directly with your energy supplier enabling them to pay exactly what they owe you. Fortunately, the UK government is currently carrying out a nationwide rollout of smart meters for free. The SMETS1 smart meter was incompatible with solar panels, but the second-generation SMETS2 is compatible, and any UK household is entitled to a free model before the end of 2025.

There are two different ways that you can be paid by suppliers for your excess electricity, either a fixed rate or a flexible rate.

Under the SEG, a fixed rate is a set amount of money for each kWh of renewable electricity you export to the grid, irrespective of the time of day.

A flexible rate SEG pays different amounts of money depending on the time of day. By way of example, you might be paid more for the electricity you export in the evening when there is a higher demand for electricity and less in the morning.

Eventually, the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) would like all fixed rate tariffs to be replaced by flexible rate tariffs, which go up and down every half hour based on wholesale electricity market prices.

The exact amount you receive for the electricity you export depends on your energy supplier.

If you look at the table of energy suppliers below you will see that most of the Big Six energy companies have fallen well short of what the Solar Trade Association considered to be a fair price for our excess electricity which was between 5p and 6p per kWh.

Energy Supplier  PriceName of Tariff
Bulb (own customers only)5.57p/kWhExport Payments
Octopus Energy5.5p/kWhOutgoing Fixed
E.On (for new E.On solar PV customers)5.5p/kWh  Fix & Export Exclusive
OVO4p/kWhOVO SEG Tariff
ScottishPower4p/kWhSmart Export Variable Tariff
SSE3.5p/kWhSmart Export Tariff
Shell Energy3.5p/kWhSEG V1 Tariff
British Gas3.2p/kWhExport & Earn Flex
Utilita3p/kWhUtilita Smart Export Guarantee
Bulb (for non-customers)3p/kWhExport Payments
E.On (for all other customers)3p/kWhFix & Export
Utility Warehouse2p/kWhUW Smart Export Guarantee
EDF1.5p/kWhExport+Earn
E1p/kWhE SEG January2020v.1

The Energy Saving Trust have estimated that a household with a 4kWhp solar panel system, a grid electricity price of 14.33p/kWh and Octopus Energy’s SEG rate of 5.4p/kWh could make £338 per year. In this example the EST is assuming that the 4kWhp system might generate 3,410kWh of electricity in a year and that the household might export half of this back to the grid. If you break this figure down it is comprised of £244 of energy bill savings and £94 of export earnings.

However, this is just an estimate and multiple variables will affect your earnings through the SEG. These include:

  • how much electricity your solar panels can generate 
  • how much electricity you send to the grid 
  • how much you pay for grid electricity 
  • what SEG rate you receive

If you have invested in a solar-plus-battery system at home, you will need to find out whether your energy supplier will accept solar energy exported from a battery. Not all energy companies do, and some don’t make it clear online whether they do or not. Bulb, Octopus Energy and British Gas do offer this service but it’s as well to check with your energy company what their policy is about solar batteries.

With electricity prices rising exponentially it is important to make savings wherever you can. Now is a very good time to look at ways you can reduce your energy bills and solar panels are well worth the investment.

UK Fossil Fuel Use at an All-time Low Over Christmas 2021

carbon emissions

Fossil fuel use on the UK’s power grid fell to an all-time low during the Christmas holiday season. Analysts believe that this is further evidence of the ongoing renewables revolution on British electricity generation over the past decade.

Data from Drax Electric Insights showed that just before midnight on the 29th of December, coal and gas were providing just 6% of electricity. Natural gas generated 17GW of electricity, while no coal was being burned for generation at this time.

From the afternoon of 23 December 2020 to the afternoon of 29 December 2020 for a period of 6 days no coal was burned making 25 December 2021 the second coal-free Christmas Day Britain has experienced, after 2020’s.

That having been said, renewables were responsible for delivering the UK’s greenest Christmas yet in 2021.

Analysts said:

“Renewables generated 24.19 GW, 65 % of the country’s entire electricity needs, while fossil fuels were at a new record low.”

The milestone reached just before midnight on the 29th of December happened as fossil fuels were marginalised by huge contributions from renewable sources. Gusty weather meant that wind turbines were generating 15.62GW of electricity, 55.32% of Britain’s needs. At the same time, biomass plants (Drax operates the UK’s largest biomass plant) were generating 2.34GW of electricity (8.27%) and hydro installations 0.3GW (1.05%). This takes the total contribution from renewables to 65% with nuclear contributing another 24%. Solar PV was not generating any electricity as the milestone was reached during the night.

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The news of this milestone emphasised the dramatic shift in the power mix over the last decade. At the same time a decade ago, fossil fuels were producing 18.78GW of electricity to the grid, accounting for 58.79% of all generation.

Indeed, green power dominated the grid mix over the 2021 Christmas period. During the seven days from Christmas Eve, the average carbon intensity of the power grid dropped to just 125g of CO2 per kWh which Is less than half the current average and 75 per cent lower than the same period in 2012 when the carbon intensity was 464g/kWh.

However, if the UK is to stay on track in order to reach net zero, the Climate Change Committee, says the carbon intensity of UK electricity must fall to 50g of CO2 per kWh by the end of this decade and reach just 2g of CO2 by 2050.

To achieve this a further major expansion in renewable power will be needed across the UK. Earlier in December 2021, ministers opened a £285m auction for a new fleet of offshore wind farms capable of powering eight million homes.

Though the growth of renewables and the demise of fossil fuels is going in the right direction, the UK’s electricity system was dirtier in 2021 than 2020. According to Carbon Brief’s provisional analysis, in the year to 22nd December 2021, the average carbon intensity of the grid was 187g CO2/kWh, which is up modestly from the green record of 181g set in 2020. They believe that this minor setback can be attributed to the extraordinary circumstances of 2020. Strict lockdowns held during the pandemic led to much of the economy being frozen for months and depressed electricity demand. On top of this historically low wind speeds across Europe also dampened renewable generation in 2021.

According to the National Grid Electricity System Operator (ESO) the grid did see some green landmarks in 2021. Due to high levels of wind and solar power, the carbon intensity of the grid fell to its lowest level yet at just 39gCO2/kWh on Easter Monday, 5th April.

Two more records toppled on 21st of May. Between 2am and 3am, wind turbines contributed the highest percentage of the UK’s electricity yet at 62.5%. As the windy day progressed wind generation peaked at an all-time high of 17.7GW between 3.30pm and 4.30pm. Britain’s wind turbines were generating enough electricity to power 7.8 million kettles!

The UK has also had an excellent green start to 2022. According to the ESO, New Year’s Day saw the carbon intensity of the grid once again dipping to 39g/CO2/kWh matching the record set in April 2021. This was made possible by huge contributions from zero-carbon sources. Taken together, wind, solar, biomass, hydro, and nuclear contributed 85.2% of the country’s power.

How To Save Energy at Home: 10 Tips

warm_home_infrared_heating

By Diane Small

It’s a sad fact: we do things every day that waste money. It’s not like we notice it, because it’s not coming directly out of our pocket. But small habits – like not turning off lights, taking a longer shower than is necessary, doing half a load of laundry or forgetting to turn off the heater when you leave the house – actually waste loads of your money every year. Oh, and did I mention they also waste energy?

Making a few small changes can make a huge difference. And who doesn’t want to save money whilst creating a greener, cleaner environment? I’ve thought up 10 Ways to Save Energy at Home that will also help you save money, no matter what the season.

Be Mindful of the Thermostat

Most of us switch the central heating off sometime in April, or May if we are unlucky with the weather. But while it’s on, we’re not very smart about the central heating, with most people leaving the heater on even though they’re not in the house. Even if you switch it on only when you’re at home, most people keep the heat constant even at night, when you’re under the blankets. Studies show that we sleep better in a cooler room, so it makes sense to turn the thermostat down.

New innovations like the NEST thermostat can be controlled from your mobile phone, allowing you to turn the heat up or down whether you’re home, out or already tucked into the covers.  You can save up to 3% on your heating bill for each degree you drop in temperature.

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Consider Materials

Stone and marble floors are cooler in summer whilst wood is easier to heat in winter. If you live in a cold climate, building a house with marble floors would be a nightmare to heat; conversely, if you build a house in a hot climate that has many south facing glass panels, you’re asking for huge air conditioning or cooling bills. Try to stick with traditional architectural styles: there’s a reason houses in Sweden are made from wood whilst those in Greece are made of stone painted white with few windows indeed.

Simply Dust Behind Your Fridge  

The next time you are cleaning your home, check the coils behind the fridge. These often collect lots of dust, which over time can reduce the fridge’s efficiency and cost you more money and energy to run.

Opt For Energy Saving Appliances  

This is a no-brainer: when your various appliances give up the ghost, it’s time to look for an energy efficient replacement. This will not only save you money, but they’re also obviously better for the environment. Look for Energy Star Certified white goods for the best energy ratings.

Consider a Wood Stove          

If you’re staying in one or two rooms all day, why are you heating the entire house with central heating?    Wood & Multi Fuel Stovescan heat your home in winter in exactly the rooms you spend the most time in. Just ensure that you burn the right type of wood in your stove. Burning unseasoned wood for example will increase emissions and produce a lesser flame and heat, than if you were to burn dry, seasoned wood. A lower heat output means you need to burn more wood for the same heat.

Unplug Battery Chargers – Or Use Solar

When you are not charging batteries unplug your battery charger. Many chargers still draw a power even when they are not in use. Even better: buy a solar charger and use that!

Reduce Your Water Use  

In countries like the UK, people often wonder why they need to reduce water use when H2O seems so abundant. But using more water means using more energy thanks to two things: the pump and the water heater. Of course, it’s also a good idea to save water (after all, it takes an awful lot of energy to purify it to make it potable!) but taking shorter, slightly cooler showers will put more pounds in your pocket.

Use Energy Saving Bulbs

In most of the EU, regular tungsten bulbs are already being phased out in favour of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) or Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). Although they cost a little more than regular bulbs, they last a lot longer and you could save around £30 a year in electricity costs. Not only that, but they also emit far less heat, which means you save money cooling your house in the hotter summer months.

Use The Sun – Or Not

The sun is powerful. It can significantly help heat your home in winter, and in summer, it’s important to block its rays with shades and blinds. If you have air conditioning, this will mean it will work less and use less energy to cool your home to the required temperature

Hob Sizes and Pots

Ensure you match the hob size to the pan you are cooking with. Using a large hob with a small pot is a waste of energy (and often causes it to boil over more easily!)

There are many more quick and easy energy saving tips that you can do all year round. By taking the time to think more about energy saving techniques it will help the environment – and your bank balance!

Information Batteries: How They Can Help Store Sustainable Energy

Data Battery

Prime Minister Boris Johnson is influencing a greener future with renewable energy projects. He created a sustainability goal for the U.K. to source all its electricity from emission-free sources by 2035. As a result, environmental engineers and scientists are searching for supportive technologies to maximize renewable energy production and minimize loss.

Solar and wind power rely on inconsistent weather patterns, which limit their ability to replace fossil fuels. Energy professionals identify grid-scale storage and load shifting as practical solutions to the intermittency of renewable energy. An information battery supports efficient power production and emission-reduction goals.

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Information Battery Technology and Load Shifting

Information batteries influence efficient energy storage measures by developing precomputations. They access necessary data and help storage facilities meet end-to-end production demands. Storing energy as information minimizes power loss and increases renewables’ ability to replace fossil fuels.

Energy professionals can use consumption predictions to move renewables throughout grid systems. Instead of storing excess solar and wind power as hydrogen, the energy supports computer learning. An information battery is a realistic solution to grid expansions by transitioning away from conventional electricity sources.

Predicting renewable energy consumption patterns may be challenging for individuals because the industry is changing rapidly. Power plants that utilize information battery technology can support load shifting to eliminate energy loss and improve sustainability. Instead of forcing maximum quantities of clean electricity through the grid, information batteries study consumption rates and mindfully distribute power.

Load shifting helps production facilities respond to real-time consumption demands. Pairing load shifting with information batteries reduces the risk of power outages. The batteries also reduce energy expenses because information storage is more cost-effective than electricity storage.

The Clean Electric Grid

Britain plans to achieve 100% renewable energy sourcing by adopting a clean electric grid. Currently, the country obtains 80% of its electricity from low-emission sources. Optimizing energy production and distribution with information batteries can reduce power loss and pollution.

Utilizing excess energy to predict production demands improves grid success. Pairing the batteries with smart grid technologies also optimizes electricity development and distribution. The autonomous systems use monitors and sensors to collect vital production and consumption data.

Smart grids also support communication among renewable energy producers, delivery channels and customers. Autonomous technologies and information batteries use information collection to improve efficiency levels. Smart grids can also minimize electricity costs by quickly identifying and responding to problems.

Renewable Energy Storage with Hydrogen

Renewable energy production facilities can store excess electricity with hydrogen fuel cells. The power left over from an information battery may support efficient grid functions by powering a backup supply. In addition, solar and wind energy’s inconsistent development rates reduce their compatibility with modern consumption demands.

Hydrogen fuel cell storage helps energy companies respond to high demands during low production times. The technology directly connects to photovoltaic solar panels or wind turbines to charge a conventional battery. Once it reaches a full charge, electricity moves through an electrolyzer and produces hydrogen gas and water.

The renewable energy storage system holds hydrogen as a potential power source and converts it into electricity during high consumption. Renewable energy manufacturers can utilize hydrogen batteries to support the clean electric grid, while information batteries help develop structural improvements.

Information Batteries and Data Centers

Corporations rely on computerized data centers to store and process essential information. Large-scale data centers like Google utilize up to 50% more energy than conventional buildings. Renewable energy manufacturers can work with digitized companies to power their facilities with emission-free electricity.

Working with tech companies to store renewables as information shrinks the carbon footprint of the energy and corporate sectors. Different businesses recognize the advantages of information battery technology and sustainable storage systems. They are investing in advancements to access affordable electricity and shrink their carbon footprints.

Early Investment Benefits

Businesses can access the optimal benefits of information batteries by investing early. Tech companies may utilize renewable energy sources directly, supporting sustainable system transitions and low electricity costs.

Corporations can also use the technology to gain insight into their consumption patterns, which help minimize energy loss and emissions and help the U.K. meet its 2035 clean energy goal.

Could The Energy Crisis Have Been Averted in the UK?

Energy Crisis

Although the energy crisis is affecting the whole world, the UK has been hit particularly hard. The record high wholesale cost of gas has led to soaring electricity bills which is fueling a cost-of-living crisis in the UK. The crisis is set to get worse come April when the energy price gap will rise by 54% and customers will see an increase of £693 per year on their energy bills. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Rishi Sunak’s targeted support scheme will do little to lessen the worse effects of this huge price jump.

Why are UK Energy Bills so High?

While there is no doubt that these high prices are in part due to the wholesale cost of gas, there’s evidence that some electricity generators are charging much higher prices to increase generation on days when flows of electricity from wind and solar plants fall.

To ensure a steady supply of electricity engineers at National Grid ESO, which manages the grid, have to work continuously with generators to manage supply.

On the days or hours when there is very little wind, National Grid takes bids from suppliers to fill in the gap via something called the “balancing market”. In recent months balancing market costs have risen exponentially.

Darren Jones MP, chair of the business, energy and industrial strategy committee told Sky News:

“The pricing seems very high compared to normal. What we need to understand is how much of that is related to the price of gas given the international gas crisis, and how much of that is due to potential bad behaviour of generators who are quite frankly taking the mick in order to make excessive profits.”

November 2021 saw the most expensive month on record with balancing costs reaching £541 which is nearly four times the monthly average.

This unprecedented peak led to the energy regulator Ofgem writing to energy companies about the issue. National Grid ESO has since launched a review of the market. The review will examine the timing and the cost of the “bids” made by power generators offering to take part in the balancing market.

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Fintan Slye, Director of National Grid ESO told Sky News:

“We wanted to ensure the rules and mechanisms of that market were delivering competitive outcomes for consumers.”

The severity of the UK’s energy crisis is in part due to the mishandling of its ambitious green agenda.

The UK is in a transition stage on its journey to reaching net zero. While we build our low-carbon energy systems we need to ensure we have “dispatchable power” which are sources of energy that allow supply to be ramped up or down to meet demand. In older electricity systems this was simply a case of burning more hydrocarbons when necessary. Wind and solar energy, which in 2020 made up 29% of the UK’s energy supply, are intermittent as they depend on the weather.

In order to balance out the shortfall when the wind doesn’t blow, and the sun doesn’t shine it’s essential to retain some dispatchable power which means being able to switch to some other source of power at short notice. With coal almost entirely phased out the only option is gas which is currently hugely expensive.

Unfortunately, the UK’s geography doesn’t help as the best option for dispatchable power which is also low carbon is hydroelectricity. Furthermore, batteries, green hydrogen, and carbon capture are not yet developed enough to be used on a scale large enough to cover days or weeks of shortfall.

There is nothing like soaring energy bills to focus the mind on the age-old problem of how we can better store power.

The closure of the Rough gas storage facility in the North Sea in 2017 left the UK with only enough storage to meet the demand of four to five winter days. While gas is being phased out and we are relying more on renewables such as offshore wind and solar we are stuck with solving the problem of intermittency, the periods of time when the wind doesn’t blow, and the sun doesn’t shine.

The key to securing enough affordable, low-carbon energy is more storage to make the most of the renewable energy available. Within the next five years the International Energy Agency (IEA) expects global power storage capacity to expand by 56% to reach more than 270 GW by 2026. This is being driven by a growing need to create flexible electricity systems which rely more on renewable sources.

According to a report by Bloomberg New Energy Finance, well established lithium-ion batteries are expected to dominate but their capacity is measured in hours rather than days. As the winter energy crisis has progressed new energy technologies have found renewed favour within the power industry.

It is time to concentrate on developing energy storage options which could help keep the lights on in the future. Currently, there are four long-range options being developed.

Pumped hydropower:

Hydropower has acted as a form of energy storage in the UK for decades, but the new breed of pumped storage could play an even bigger role than the giant hydropower plants of the past. The way hydropower works is quite simple. Electricity is used to pump water upwards into a reservoir when the market has ample power available. When electricity supplies become tight the water can be released at short notice to flow over a generating turbine to create electricity for the grid to use. In future projects could generate the same amount of electricity from slopes which are less than half as high by using a mineral rich fluid which has more than two and a half times the density of water.

Green Hydrogen:

The demand for hydrogen made from water and renewable energy is expected to boom in the decades ahead as governments plan to replace the fossil fuels used in power plants, factories and heavy transport with the clean burning, green alternative. What may not be realised is that green hydrogen can be used as a form of energy storage.

Dr Graham Cooley, the chief executive of ITM Power which makes the electrolysers used to produce green hydrogen, says:

“When the wind is blowing but the grid is oversupplied with renewable energy you can store energy in a battery for about an hour. But if you want to store energy for days or even months you need something new.”

In the past, the UK’s electricity system operator has had no choice but to pay renewable energy developers to switch off their wind turbines or solar farms to avoid overloading the grid with green electricity when power supplies outstrip demand. Using sunny weekends and windy nights to run electrolysers and create green hydrogen could help countries make better use of their wind and solar farms.

Concentrated Solar Power Storage:

New technology is already being pioneered which allows energy generated by renewables to be stored as heat. To give an example, the Crescent Dunes project uses the heat of a vast solar farm, concentrated using mirrors, to heat molten salt to temperatures of up to 560C. The salt can maintain this temperature until electricity is needed. Then, the heat is used to run a conventional steam turbine which generates enough electricity to power 75,000 homes long after the sun has set.

According to the IEA, concentrated solar power is typically stored for between five to 15 hours, more than three times the duration of traditional lithium-ion batteries. Unlike batteries, which have a finite number of charge/discharge cycles, the molten salt, or molten silicon, can be used indefinitely and can be recycled when the units reach the end of their 20-year service life.

Cryogenic’ Batteries:

Within the next year one of the world’s biggest liquid air, or “cryogenic”, batteries will begin operating near Manchester in the UK after its developers promised it could help store renewable energy for weeks rather than hours.

The project being developed by Highview Power plans to use renewable electricity to chill air to -196C, transforming it into a liquid that could be stored in large metal tanks for weeks. When needed, the liquid can be turned back into gas, and used to turn a turbine and generate enough electricity to power up to 200,000 homes for five hours. The full-scale “cryobattery” will have a capacity of 50MW or 250MWh over a five-hour release time.

Payment from UK Renewables

The UK’s wind and solar farms could help to reduce household’s energy bills by paying back almost £800m to consumers by the end of the winter. According to official figures, households earned a £157m windfall from renewable energy generators for the first time in the final quarter of last year following record high market prices.

The body responsible for managing renewable energy payments, the Low Carbon Contracts Company (LCCC) has forecast paybacks from the industry could increase to a total of £770m by the end of winter, shaving an average of £27 from the annual home energy bill.

However, according to the industry, customers might have been in line for multibillion pound paybacks worth about £140 for a typical annual energy bill if the UK’s renewable energy rollout had taken place sooner.

The system that typically sees renewable energy projects receive payments from household energy bills to top up the earnings from the energy market to an agreed level, is supposed to protect households from surging market prices. Renewable energy projects in return, are expected to pay cash back to consumers when market prices outstrip the set subsidy level.

Based on official figures form the last quarter and according to analysis by SSE, the UK’s pipeline of renewable energy projects, which are expected to be under construction until 2023, could have saved households £3.9bn if they were operating this winter.

It is widely agreed within the industry that in order to avoid an energy crisis caused by soaring gas prices, investment in low-cost renewables needs to be encouraged so that the UK can decrease its reliance on very expensive fossil fuels. The UK needs to build more of its own clean energy infrastructure and invest in the network infrastructure to connect it all if we are to be protected from the next energy crisis.